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SUR 4201 Route Geometrics Final Exam Review
The final exam will completely based on the Bearss Ave. project and plan set as posted on the course website. You need to know these plans very well. Review my two lectures where I reviewed the plans. A typical question would be worded like, "On Bearss Ave, why -----?, or "On Bearss Ave. designers now change a design choice, now what is the value of ------?, etc."
There will be about 15 M/C questions on Quiz 1 topics: about 15 M/C questions on Quiz 2 Topics; about 15 M/C questions on Quiz 3 (New stuff) Topics: Total 100 possible points.
Quiz 1:
Traverse calculations -- cartesian coordinates, route coordinates, northing, easting, conversion between bearings, angles, and azimuths, computing N/E by "traversing" using sine and cosine function, calculating the unknown distance and azimuth between two coordinate points (inversing), determining the Linear Error of Traverse Closure, Ratio of Error, balancing a traverse
Sample Calcs: Assume Sta 160 coordinates 10,000N/10,000E. Compute the cartesian coordinates of points on the Bearss Ave baseline, PCs, PTs, PIs. Use the one given azimuth (bearing), compute azimuths of lines on the baseline. Calculate the unknown straight line distance and azimuth between two alignment points (use distance formula and atan for azimuth.
Horizontal Route Geometry and Design route horizontal tangents, delta angles, compute tangent lengths and azimuths, stationing, curve data and curve parts, PC and PT and PI stations, design to avoid overlaps, computing N/E coordinates of curve points.
Sample Calcs: Verify the Curve 3/4 curve data in the given tables. Computed correctly? Lets change one curve to a different curvature/radius, what is the new station of some point? new curve data? Compute the largest radius (minimum D) that would avoid overlap between Curve 3 and 4, etc.
Vertical Route Geometry and Design -- route vertical tangents, percent grade, computing elevations on a vertical tangent, vertical curve theory, equal tangent property, constant rotation rate property, K and r, vertical curve equation, high/low turning points, design to prevent overlap, design to limit cut and fill heights, design to achieve a "r" or K value.
Sample Calcs: Compute the baseline elevation at any station. Verify the vertical curve elevations as given. Verify the low point station and elevation. Change the vertical curve (Length L, K, or r) to a different value, now what's the new curve elevation at a station, PVC/PVT sta/elev, low point sta/elev. Change a PVI sta/elev to a different value, what's the new g1 and g2?
Cross Section Geometry field cross sections of existing ground, typical section specifications, plotting existing and proposed cross sections, identify cut and fill end areas, calculate end areas, estimate transition stations, calculate earthwork volumes.
Sample calcs: On the cross section page, count squares to judge whether the given cut or fill area is close. Using the given areas, use the average end area method to verify whether the volumes were done correctly.
Quiz 2
Spirals concept of the need for and use of spirals, spiral parts Rc, Ls, DELTAs, r, l, little DELTA, Xs, Ys, throw o, Xo, LT, ST, LC, inserting spirals into an alignment, shifting the circular curve, DELTAc, Lc, stationing the spiraled curve, designing spirals to prevent overlaps (approx half spiral length inside/outside of original PC/PT).
Sample calcs: Now, lets insert spirals into Bearss Ave. Given a spiral length Ls, what's DELTAs, Xs, Ys, throw, the length of remaining circular arc, etc. Also, what's the largest Ls that will avoid spiral overlaps between Curves 3 and 4? Given a "jerk" C, what's the required velocity, radius, Ls, etc.
Superelevation concept of the need for superelevation, quantity e, superelevation equation, side friction factors (max, safe, design), superelevation e (max, design), rate of rise ROR, Length of Transition, AASHTO chart, superelevation transitions, pavement edge vertical offsets, pavement edge elevations, edge profiles.
Sample calcs: Beginning at "profile grade" from sheet 7, verify any of the elevations shown at the bottom of the superelevation page 6. I will give you the given elevation in case you can't read the text. What's the f value for vehicles in various lanes at various velocities? Calculate or state V/f/e in various stated conditions: equil, safe, max, and design on Bearss Ave.
Earthwork Analysis a quantity sheet, pay items of construction, four traditional line items for earth operations, roadway excavation, overhaul compensation, borrow, waste, free haul distance, limit of economic haul, constructing a mass diagram, shrinkage factors, expand fills, compute earthwork cumulative total, plot mass diagram, make a schematic profile for analysis, apply FHD balance lines, identify cut and fill quantities Q's, tabulate line item quantities, compute total earthwork costs.
Sample calcs: Come into the exam with a mass diagram pre plotted. Begin project is station 160 at "0" cumulative. Plot through Sta 171. Use a 25% shrinkage factor. Given values of FHD, @a/b/c/d, what are the various quantities LEH, r'dwy exc, overhaul, borrow, waste, costs of each? Also identify critical places on the mass diagram and profile max depth cut/fill, points of inflection, transitions from cut/fill, etc.
Quiz 3 (New Stuff)
AASHTO Geometric Design Standards the history and evolution of AASHTO design standards, federal/state/local road systems, the Red, Blue, and Green Book. AASHTO presumptions, height of driver's eye, height of stopping object, wet pavement, worn tires, skid factors, calculate stopping distance, perception and reaction time, braking distance, sight distance, vertical curve sight distance, calculating the Lmin to achieve sight distance, calculating the minimum "offset" for horizontal sight distance, evaluating a road for vertical, intersection, or horizontal sight distance, intersection sight distance, time gap.
Sample calcs: Given a feature (building, etc) that will be there after construction, identify the station with the least horizontal sight distance. Calculate the required minimum clear zone with? Calculate P&R, braking, and stopping distance S for various speeds. Calculate the Intersection Sight Distance requirements for intersecting side roads, etc.
A Route Project Time Flow:
Concept phase (need identified, solution proposed, identify A and B, identify approximate cross section, identify RW width, funding on the DOT five year project schedule) Corridor selection phase (small scale mapping/imagery of land between A and B, corridor analysis to identify up to three alternate corridors, cost benefit analysis, construction costs, right of way costs, environmental costs and issues, proposed final corridor, public hearing) Alignment (Location) Design Phase (large scale topographic mapping of the corridor, scale, contour interval, trial paper alignments, final alignment, COGO, location survey.) Right of way acquisition phase concurrent with Final Engineering design phase (identify "taking parcels", appraisal of values, offer to purchase, negotiations, invoke eminent domain) Final engineering design (design profile, final cross sections, earthwork, plans production, structures, pavement markings, utilities, drainage, all project aspects in construction plans.) Project Construction phase distribute plans to bidders, bids by line item, award bid, construction, open project to public. Time total to put a new project in service.
Typical Questions: Likely time it took on Bearss Ave to accomplish various phases. Sequence of phases on Bearss Ave. Activities in each phase on Bearss Ave?
Project Plans Bearss Ave plan set, cover sheet, specification page, typical cross section page, drainage sheet, quantity sheet, superelevation sheet, plan profile sheet, cross section sheets.
Typical Questions: Questions on Cover sheet, Notes/Specification sheet, Drainage sheet, Typical Section sheet, Quantity sheet, Superelevation Sheet, Plan Profile sheet, Cross section sheets consistent with lecture video comments and your general understanding of the plans.
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